With the recent news that an autonomous Uber vehicle killed a woman crossing the street in Tempe, Arizona, this ethical question is very timely. Here is an element of response published in the MIT Technology Review:
Criminal liability usually requires an action and a mental intent (in legalese an actus rea and mens rea). Kingston says Hallevy explores three scenarios that could apply to AI systems.
The first, known as perpetrator via another, applies when an offense has been committed by a mentally deficient person or animal, who is therefore deemed to be innocent. But anybody who has instructed the mentally deficient person or animal can be held criminally liable. For example, a dog owner who instructed the animal to attack another individual.
The whole article is interesting as it delves deeper in all the possible scenarios.
Recently Wu has evolved his process of working with the drones to form light paths above topographical peaks in the mountainous terrain. “I see it as a kind of ‘zero trace’ version of land art where the environment remains untouched by the artist, and at the same time is presented in a sublime way which speaks to 19th century Romantic painting and science and fictional imagery,” said Wu to Colossal.
In an era where many cannot imagine an efficient supply chain operating without the benefit of technology, Mumbai India has an example of a lean, just-in-time, 99.99 percent accurate supply chain operating without any form of technology.
In India, “tiffin” is a packed lunch typically prepared for working Indian men by their wives after they have left for work. These tiffins are delivered by the dabbawalla, of whom almost 50 percent are illiterate. This supply chain delivers home cooked food to the office in time for lunch, and then returns the empty tiffin-boxes by the end of the working day. In a crowded city like Mumbai where merely boarding a local train is a huge challenge, toting a bulky tiffin carrier and delivering it on time is a daunting task.
Started in 1890, today 5,000 dabbawallas serve 200,000 customers in Mumbai. This involves 400,000 last mile transactions per day (including the return of empty tiffin carriers) with an error rate of 1 in 16 million transactions. This high rate of dependability earned this supply chain a six sigma designation and an ISO 9001 accreditation.
Zuckerberg has been publicly silent since the Observer and the New York Times reported on Saturday that Facebook has for years been aware that a third-party app, billing itself as collecting user data for research purposes, exploited sufficiently weak privacy settings on unsuspecting user accounts to accumulate 50 million profiles. The app designer provided the data to Cambridge Analytica, the analytics and messaging firm controlled by Donald Trump allies.
Facebook reportedly asked Cambridge Analytica to delete the data in 2015, but did not verify that the deletion occurred. Cambridge Analytica subsequently received approximately $6 million from the Trump campaign to aid in its messaging and voter targeting. (The company had additional contracts worth millions of dollars with pro-Trump political action committees.)
We must keep in mind that this is playing out in the bigger context of the Russian interference scandal. This is why the scandal rocked the US as a whole. So because of shady practices (allowing a dev to exploit their data) Facebook is in a very delicate position. There will be exits, there will be “big plans to fight for privacy” but Facebook will survive.
Even though WhatsApp cofounder Brian Acton (who sold his company to Facebook for around $19B in 2014) tweeted it’s time to #deletefacebook, what he doesn’t realise is that for many people around the world, Facebook is the Internet (Indonesia is the 4th biggest Facebook population (and the world’s 4th too)). Brian Acton also now works at Signal, a Facebook competitor.
So while a few privacy-conscious people from SF and NY will leave the service, utility-hungry people around the world are joining by millions.
If you don’t pay for the product, you are the the product. As long as we don’t have a viable alternative, most of us are sticking with Facebook. Independently from the scandals and crises.
But a wide-ranging, careful meta-analysis published in JAMA-Cardiology found no meaningful link between Omega-3s and reduced risk of heart disease. As Lifehacker points out, this joins reviews that show no benefit from taking Omega-3s for “dementia, depression, inflammatory bowel disease, or age-related macular degeneration.”
There may be a small improvement in breast cancer, and a small increased risk for prostate cancer, and if you’re seriously Omega-3 deprived, the supplements may be a good idea.
There’s just one catch: King essentially paid to be added to those Spotify playlists. He’s one of countless artists who have compensated curators to check out his tracks—or in the case for some of his contemporaries, to be added to specific playlists—to gain valuable streams and attention.
Tyler Cowen from Marginal Revolution summarises some of René Girard’s views in a very simple fashion. The first point, quoted below, reads a bit like the Nietzschean view but I may be mistaken:
His understanding of Christianity as fundamentally and radically different from earlier religions, as it exalts the individual victim rather than the conqueror. Here is one point from a summarizer: “Christianity is the revelation (the unveiling) of what the myths want to veil; it is the deconstruction of the mono-myth, not a reiteration of it—which is exactly why so many within academe want to domesticate and de-fang it.”
A long and thorough piece written by Emily Chang for Vanity Fair detailing the detachment of Silicon Valley’s sex parties. The men are… special:
When I ask Founder X whether these men are taking advantage of women by feeding them inhibition-melting drugs at sex parties, he replies that, on the contrary, it’s women who are taking advantage of him and his tribe, preying on them for their money.
The whole article is as entertaining as it is horrific.
Yes, like, even more than they do today. This is Tyler Cowen’s question and here are two views:
Under one view, the major tech companies lucked into some pieces of rapidly scalable software. They are phenomenal at producing and distributing such software, but otherwise they put on their pants one leg at a time, just like the rest of us. They are not especially productive at marginal activities beyond their core competencies.
Under the second view, the major tech companies have developed new managerial technologies for hiring, handling, and motivating super-smart employees. That is the reason why the tech companies have become phenomenal at producing and distributing rapidly scalable software. But if tech companies turn their attention to other productive activities, they would do very very well. Alex for instance thinks that Apple ought to buy a university. Or you might expect that Google’s “scallion fried fish” dish would be especially tasty. After all, do not smarter people make for better cooks?
The article is interesting throughout but here are excerpts:
Istvan Molnar-Szakacs, Ph.D., a research neuroscientist at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience at the University of California, Los Angeles, has explored how music “creates the sense of social belonging,” as he writes in a 2015 paper, “Please Don’t Stop the Music.”
“When you’re home alone in your house, it feels empty,” he says. “And then you put on music and all of a sudden you feel better because you’re not alone. It’s not that literally you’re not alone. But you feel like you have company.”
The moment you hear a sequence of hierarchically organized abstract sounds we call music, a multitude of associations are activated in your brain. These can include memories, emotions, and even motor programs for playing music. Together they can imply a sense of human agency. That sensation is what sets music apart from other types of sounds. “The brain interprets the structure of the music as intentionality that is coming from a human agent,” Molnar-Szakacs says. “This, combined with all the associations evoked by the music, is what makes the experience social.”
Our sense of others as represented by the mirror-neuron system, charged with emotion from the limbic system, can give rise to empathy. To Molnar-Szakacs, it is emotional empathy that can explain “why music can be experienced as a social phenomenon even when someone is listening alone on their earphones.”
In one study from 2009, researchers used fMRIs to test whether lonely brains were more sensitive to threats. Twenty-three participants were placed in an MRI and shown a series of pictures, some of them pleasant, such as money and a rocket lifting off, and others unpleasant, including human conflict. They found that lonely brains respond less positively to pleasant images than non-lonely brains, and more strongly to images of violence and unpleasant social situations. Loneliness spurs the brain into a hyper-vigilant state, unable to relax. The lonely brain doesn’t passively take the world in, but actively interprets it as an unfriendly place.
Hawkley found that lonely individuals take longer to fall asleep, wake up more during the night, and sleep less deeply. “The lonely person’s feeling of not being safe, socially safe, could contribute to disrupted sleep,” she says.
Imagine if prisons looked like the grounds of universities. Instead of languishing in cells, incarcerated people sat in classrooms and learned about climate science or poetry — just like college students. Or even with them.
This would be a boon to prisoners across the country, a vast majority of whom do not have a high school diploma. And it could help shrink our prison population. While racial disparities in arrests and convictions are alarming, education level is a far stronger predictor of future incarceration than race.
Elizabeth Hinton for The New York Times has an interesting point to make.
Not being able to eat after heartbreak is caused by the “fight” mode your body enters after the breakup, according to ter Horst. Your sympathetic nervous system kicks in, whaich is the system that allows your body to respond quickly in the event of an emergency. Your pupils dilate, the pulmonary alveoli widen, and your heart starts to beat faster. Long story short: You’re going into survival mode. Having a bite to eat becomes a secondary concern. To help out, the body has found a way to suppress the inevitable hunger pangs: There’s fewer constrictions and relaxations of the muscles in your stomach and bowels, which consequently slows down the digestion of food.
So, she did the unthinkable. She broke through the screen. ‘One day, between takes, I left my green room, and said: “I want to see Reynolds.”’ She laughs as she remembers it. ‘The first [crew member] said, “Oh, no, no, you can’t.” But I kept walking. And then I walked past a few others who said, “No, really, you can’t do this.” But I’d had it up to here. Finally, I got to the door of his green room and knocked. I didn’t know what would happen. Would I be screamed at?’
Happily, no. ‘He opened the door and said, “Alma!” And we had tea together and a lovely conversation about music and Virginia Woolf. From then on, it became a regular thing; we would meet between takes, in character, and just… talk.’
Some 75,000 Americans are waiting for an organ donation. Today, like every other, around 20 will die. But researchers this week at the AAAS, a big science conference, held forth a tantalising prospect: animal organ factories. Take, for example, the fertilised egg of a pig and cut out genes that promote the development of the animal’s heart. Now, this pig will grow up without a heart of its own. Then inject human stem cells taken from a patient who needs a new heart into the embryo and then place it into the womb of a sow. Wait nine months. The result would be an adult pig with a heart made of human cells which can be slaughtered and the organ transplanted into the patient who provided the stem cells—a perfect genetic match. The concept has already been proven with mice-rat “chimeras”. Pig-human ones are more challenging, but getting closer.
Whatever the case, this doesn’t seem to be an exploit that any human has discovered before. If the AI agent could think, it would probably be wondering why it’s supposed to bother jumping on all these boxes when it’s found a much more efficient way to score points.